KRISTINE AKEY'S SAMPLE UNIT PLAN: SPANISH CIVIL WAR

 


 

 

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Advanced Spanish Sample Unit Plan
Spanish Civil War and Franco Dictatorship

 

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Spanish
NYS Checkpoint C Grades 11 or 12



1) Learning Context
Purpose of the Learning Experience: For students in 11th or 12th grade to gain a basic understanding of the Franco dictatorship in Spain and to improve their communication skills in the target language.  The students will also develop their cross-cultural skills and understandings. 
Standards and Performance Indicators addressed in the Learning Experience:
LOTE Standard 1: Students will be able to use a language other than English for communication
Key Idea: Reading and Writing
Performance indicators:

 
Key Idea: Listening and Speaking

 
LOTE Standard 2: Students will develop cross-cultural skills and understandings
Key Idea: Effective Communication
Performance Indicators:

 
The Learning Experience addresses the NYS core curriculum as found on page 21 of the LOTE Resource Guide (Part 1) under Politics and Government and Social Structure and Economic life.

Prior Knowledge:
The prior knowledge required for student success in this Learning Experience is a proficient set of reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills in the target language, exposure to the concept of culture, and critical thinking skills. 
 
2) Assessment Plan
Student performance for this Learning Experience in Checkpoint C (11th or 12th grade students of Spanish) will be proficient to distinguished, varying from student to student.

  1. I will use observation, group discussions, journal writing, and essay writing to collect evidence of student progress toward meeting the learning standards’ performance indicators. 
  2. I will use rubrics, formative and summative assessments to document student progress.
  3. Students will be aware of the expectations placed on them from the very beginning of the unit.  Students will be asked to evaluate their own work according to the rubric, prior to teacher evaluation.


    TRABAJO FINAL: RUBRIC FOR FINAL PROJECT

Criteria

Below Standard

Approaches Standard

Meets Standard

 Exceeds Standard

 

Using a Language Other Than English for Communication: Writing

Writing mostly in English or a few sentences in target language. Writing is mostly unorganized; thoughts lack unification and writing is difficult to follow. Mostly grammatically incorrect.

Student writes one or two pages in the target language; paper lacks unification and organization of thoughts.   Seven or more grammatical errors occur.  

Student writes three to six pages in the target language discussing the Spanish Civil War and Franco’s dictatorship with thoughts that are unified and organized.  Four or five grammatical errors occur.  

Student writes seven or more pages in the target language discussing the Spanish Civil War and Franco’s dictatorship  with thoughts that are unified and organized.  No grammatical errors occur.

 

Using a Language Other than English for Communication: Listening Comprehension

Student’s essay demonstrates no understanding of the main ideas and important details of television, movies, or other media designed for native speakers (less than three references to media encountered throughout the LE)

Student’s essay demonstrates little understanding of the main ideas and important details of radio, television, movies, or other media designed for native speakers (three or four references to media encountered throughout the LE)

Student’s essay demonstrates understanding of the main ideas and important details of radio, television, movies, or other media designed for native speakers (five or more references to media encountered throughout the LE)

Student’s essay demonstrates a clear understanding of the main ideas and important details of  television, movies, or other media designed for native speakers (seven or more references to media encountered throughout the LE)

 

Effective Communication: Vocabulary and Use of Time Frames

 

Student does not demonstrate selection of learned vocabulary, idioms, and structures; demonstrates no ability to use a wide range of time frames; no apparent vocab/language acquired through independent reading

Student demonstrates a limited range of learned vocabulary, idioms, and structures; includes a few different time frames; little apparent vocab/language acquired through independent reading

Student draws on a broad range of learned vocabulary, idioms, and structures, including (almost always) accurate use of the full range of time frames, as well as vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

Student draws on an extensive range of learned vocabulary, idioms, and structures, including mastery of the full range of time frames, as well as an outstanding amount of new vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

 

Effective Communication: Using Appropriate Registers
Criteria

Student does not demonstrate ability to determine when to use the formal and informal registers in the target language

Student has three or more mistakes when determining to use the formal and informal registers in the target language

Student has one or two mistakes when determining whether to use the formal or the informal registers in the target language

Student always uses appropriate registers by demonstrating ability to determine when to use the formal and informal registers in the target language

Effective Communication: Reading Comprehension

Student demonstrates little or no comprehension of content of texts of interest to native speakers (makes one or no references to important details from texts encountered throughout the LE)

Student demonstrates some comprehension of content of most texts of interest to native speakers (references two or three important details from texts encountered throughout the LE)

Student demonstrates proficient comprehension of content of most texts of interest to native speakers (references at four to six important details from texts encountered throughout the LE)


Student demonstrates outstanding comprehension of content of all texts of interest to native speakers (references at least seven important details from texts encountered throughout the LE)

Cross-Cultural Skills and Understandings:
Writing

Student writes in manner that demonstrates no understanding of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors (no examples of similarities or differences)

Student writes in the target language in a manner that articulates little understanding of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors (references at one or two similarities or differences)

Student writes in target language in a manner that articulates a proficient grasp of similarities and differences in cultural (references three or four similarities or differences)

Student writes in target language in a manner that articulates an outstanding grasp of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors (references at least five similarities or differences)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RUBRIC FOR REACTION JOURNALS

 

Criteria

Perfecto (4)

Excelente (3)

Super (2)

 Incompleto (1)

 

Writing for Effective Communication

Student writes seven or more paragraphs in the target language per entry and in which thoughts are unified.  No grammatical errors occur.

Student writes three to six paragraphs in the target language  per entry and in which thoughts are unified.  Few grammatical errors occur.

Student writes one or two paragraphs in the target language per entry; unorganized/little unification of thoughts and a significant amount of grammatical errors. 

Writing mostly in English or a few sentences in target language per entry.  Writing contains mostly unorganized thoughts and difficult to follow and mostly grammatically incorrect.

 

Cross-Cultural Skills and Understandings

Student writes in target language in a manner that articulates an outstanding grasp of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors

Student writes in target language in a manner that articulates a proficient grasp of similarities and differences in cultural

Student writes in the target language in a manner that articulates little understanding of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors

Student writes in manner that demonstrates no understanding of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors

 

Reading/Listening
Comprehension

 

Student demonstrates outstanding comprehension of content; references at least four significant details of text/film  per entry

Student demonstrates proficient comprehension of content; references three significant details of text/film  per entry

Student demonstrates some comprehension of content; references one or two significant details of text/film  per entry

Student demonstrates little or no comprehension of content; makes no reference to main ideas/significant details of text/film

 

Writing for Effective Communication

Student draws on an extensive range (implements at least five examples per entry) of learned vocabulary/structures, including mastery of the full range of time frames, and new vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

Student draws on a broad range (implements three or four examples per entry) of learned vocabulary/structures, including mostly accurate use of the full range of time frames, and new vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading  

Student demonstrates a limited range (implements one or two examples per entry) of learned vocabulary/structures; includes a few different time frames; little apparent vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

Student does not demonstrate selection of learned vocabulary/structures; demonstrates no ability to use a wide range of time frames; no apparent vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

RUBRIC FOR BUSINESS LETTERS

Criteria

Perfecto (4)

Excelente (3)

Super (2)

 Incompleto (1)

 

Writing for Effective Communication

Student writes five or more paragraphs in the target language and in which thoughts are unified.  No grammatical errors occur.

Student writes three or four paragraphs in the target language   and in which thoughts are unified.  Few grammatical errors occur.

Student writes one or two paragraphs in the target language; unorganized/little unification of thoughts and a significant amount of grammatical errors. 

Writing mostly in English or a few sentences in target language per entry.  Writing has mostly unorganized thoughts, difficult to follow, and mostly grammatically incorrect.

 

Cross-Cultural Skills and Understandings

Student writes in target language in a manner that articulates an outstanding grasp of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors

Student writes in target language in a manner that articulates a proficient grasp of similarities and differences in cultural

Student writes in the target language in a manner that articulates little understanding of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors

Student writes in manner that demonstrates no understanding of similarities and differences in cultural behaviors

 

Using Appropriate Registers

Student always uses appropriate registers: demonstrates ability to use both formal and informal registers in the target language

Student has one or two mistakes when using the formal and informal registers in the target language

Student has three or more mistakes using appropriate registers when writing in the target language

Student does not makes no distinction between formal and informal registers when writing in the target language

 

Writing for Effective Communication

Student draws on an extensive range (implements at least five exampless) of learned vocabulary/structures, including mastery of the full range of time frames, and new vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

Student draws on a broad range (implements three or four examples) of learned vocabulary/structures, including mostly accurate use of the full range of time frames, and new vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading  

Student demonstrates a limited range (implements one or two examples) of learned vocabulary/structures; includes a few different time frames; little apparent vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading

Student does not demonstrate selection of learned vocabulary/structures; demonstrates no ability to use a wide range of time frames; no apparent vocabulary and language acquired through independent reading


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4) Procedure
Day 1:  

Teacher introduces topic Spanish Civil War and Francisco Franco dictatorship with anticipatory set and then uses an anticipation guide graphic organizer (one page, described below) to activate students’ prior knowledge relating to the Spanish Civil War. Teacher explains activities of the unit and expectations of the students (class and teacher go over assessment rubrics together) and answers any questions students may have.  The teacher distributes and explains the rubrics, including the one that will be used to evaluate students’ final projects and the rubric.   Class begins to read a handout (an article titled Acontecimientos Principales de la Guerra Civil Española, which outlines the main events of the Spanish Civil War) in target language.  For homework, students are to read the remainder of the handout and must a) list the main ideas of the article in target language (Spanish) and b) record new vocabulary learned from the handout.  Handout is included immediately after the anticipation guide (below).   
   

(Anticipation Guide)
Use this space to write anything you already know about Democracy, Dictatorship, SPAIN, Francisco Franco, Political Parties, Civil War, Repression, Violence, Censorship, Pablo Picasso, and Government


Ancontecimientos Principales de la Guerra Civil Española

Primeros meses del conflicto

Tras la muerte el 21 de julio en un accidente de avión del general Sanjurjo mientras volaba desde Lisboa (donde estaba exiliado) hasta España, es el general Franco quien encabeza el Movimiento. Los días transcurren sin que se vislumbre esperanza alguna de una rápida resolución del conflicto que mantenía a España dividida en dos.

El 1 de Agosto, Léon Blum, gobernador francés, propone a los países europeos un pacto de "no intervención " en el conflicto español, con el fin de evitar una guerra más general. Firmado unos días más tarde, el pacto no será respetado por ellos todos. Alemania e Italia enviarán armas y hombres para fortalecer a los nacionalistas sublevados mientras que la URSS les proporcionará medios importantes de defensa a los republicanos. Además, numerosos voluntarios de diferentes países, formarán lo que se conocieron como “las Brigadas internacionales” para ayudar al gobierno republicano en crisis.

Mientras tanto, Franco empieza a reagrupar su poder.  

Desde Andalucía, poco a poco van avanzando las fuerzas nacionalistas para intentar unir sus dos frentes, el del norte y el del sur. Esto es lo que se conoce como la Campaña de Extremadura, cuyo fin tiene lugar el 14 de agosto de 1936, cuando las tropas maures y el ejército africano se apoderan de Badajoz. Su victoria concluye por una atroz matanza de la población. Esta victoria hace que las zonas nacionalistas del sur y del norte reaccionen y ganen confianza y fuerza. Además, tomar Badajoz significaba que todas las regiones fronterizas con Portugal pertenecían a los nacionalistas, lo que les facilita el abastecimiento de armas y municiones.
El 1 de Octubre el general Franco, el jefe de los nacionalistas rebeldes españoles, es autoproclama " “Generalísimo” y jefe de estado en Burgos. Él se nombra entonces cómo “Caudillo” en recuerdo de los caballeros españoles que habían conseguido expulsar a los árabes fuera de España en la Edad media.

El 6 de Noviembre del 1936, bajo el poder de Largo Caballero, el gobierno republicano de Madrid decide refugiarse en Valencia. Deja la capital bajo la protección del general Miaja, la capital debe entonces hacer frente a la ofensiva llevada contra ella por el ejército nacionalista de Franco.

El 8 de Noviembre comienza la batalla de Madrid.

Grandes y feroces batallas se libran esos días en Madrid. Los conflictos de la casa de Campo, los del barrio de Argüelles o los de la ciudad universitaria, son una buena muestra. Pero el ejército popular supo frenar el avance del nacional, retirándose este último el 11 de Noviembre ante la imposibilidad de tomar la ciudad.

Por tanto, el ataque militar contemplado por Franco para conseguir tomar Madrid no será un asunto fácil y muchas feroces batallas deberán librarse hasta que, 28 meses de resistencia, Madrid será forzado a la rendición.

El año 1937
Al principio del año 1937, los nacionalistas se apoderan de Málaga, en el sur, con la ayuda de italianos, conducidos por el general Mario Roatta. La toma de Málaga se salda con otra sangría de civiles, con una represión violenta: La aviación llegó a ametrallar a los civiles que huían sobre el camino de Almería.

Pero la conquista de Madrid sigue siendo el objetivo principal de Franco. Ciudad que se le seguía resistiendo al ejército nacional.

Guerra Civil Española. Año 1937
El 19 de Abril de 1937, el general Francisco Franco funda la “Falange española tradicionalista y las Juntas de ofensiva nacional-sindicalista” con la intención de unificar la totalidad de los partidos que le apoyan en la guerra civil española (Falange española, carlistas y tradicionalistas) y formar así un partido único nacional en España.

En la tarde del 26 de Abril de ese mismo año, se producirá uno de los hechos más destacados de la Guerra Civil. Esa tarde, la pequeña ciudad de Guernica es bombardeada durante más de 3 horas por la aviación alemana, cobrándose más de 1.600 víctimas, según el gobierno. El objetivo de este bombardeo era aterrorizar la población civil.

A estas alturas de conflicto, los choques entre nacionalistas y republicanos quedan un poco en segundo plano dentro del seno republicano, dónde empiezan a surgir conflictos internos. Y es que la mayor parte de los voluntarios extranjeros no quieren restaurar en España la “república burguesa ", sino que quieren instalar una “sociedad revolucionaria”.


El 31 de octubre de 1937, el gobierno republicano de Negrin Lopez deja Valencia para establecerse en Barcelona. El 15 de Diciembre los republicanos lanzan una ofensiva para tomar la ciudad de Teruel y reforzar así su presencia en la zona de Aragón, para poder sofocar la presión sobre Cataluña. Así comienza “la batalla de Teruel”. El 22 de Diciembre unidades republicanas entran en la ciudad de Teruel con apoyo de la artillería, que controla el perímetro de la ciudad, y se ven los primeros carros republicanos en la emblemática Plaza del Torico.
El año 1938
El año 1937 acaba con una pugna de los nacionales y los republicanos por la ciudad de Teruel. Y aunque la ciudad todavía no ha sido tomada por los republicanos, su dominio sobre los nacionales es grande y pronto sucumbirá ante ellos. Y ese hecho ocurre el 8 de Enero, cuando la ciudad de Teruel es tomada por los Republicanos.

Guerra Civil. Año 1938
Pero aunque la ciudad ha sido tomada por los republicanos, los nacionales no están dispuestos a dar por perdida la ciudad, sabedores de la gran importancia estratégica de la misma. Además, al ya no tener que defender la ciudad, sino recuperarla, la ofensiva puede meditarse más, lo cual favorece al bando nacional.

El 22 de Febrero las fuerzas republicanas tienen que abandonar la ciudad luchando, ya que ésta lleva días completamente sitiada por los nacionales. La ciudad está completamente devastada pero ha sido recuperada por los nacionales.

El 15 de Abril de ese mismo año, las tropas franquistas toman Vinaroz, logrando así alcanzar el mar Mediterráneo partiendo así la zona republicana. Cataluña queda totalmente aislada de Valencia. La tropa nacionalista conseguía así, además de separar y debilitar las fuerzas republicanas, un punto clave para poder preparar una dura ofensiva contra la ciudad de Barcelona.

El 24 de Julio las fuerzas republicanas lanzan un contraataque mediante la batalla del Ebro. La batalla es cruenta, dura y larga y termina el 16 de Noviembre con la retirada republicana.

El 23 de Diciembre de 1938 los franquistas lanzan la ofensiva final contra Cataluña y un mes más tarde, el 26 de enero de 1939, Barcelona será tomada por los nacionales.
Fil de la guerra, año 1939
Como ya dijimos, el 23 de Diciembre de 1938 los franquistas lanzan la ofensiva final contra Cataluña. El camino hasta Barcelona está totalmente despejado para los nacionales y no tardará en empezar su ofensiva para tomar la ciudad.

Final de la Guerra Civil: los exiliadosLa fuerza republicana intenta tomar medidas contra ésta, enviando al 5º Cuerpo de Ejército de Líster para intentar detener el avance de las torpas de Franco. Líster pudo detener el avance nacional durante quince días, pero las fuerzas de las tropas nacionales eran superiores, y el 3 de enero tuvieron que retroceder. El frente en el sur de Cataluña estaba roto y tuvieron que retirarse. Desde Valencia, por mar, se intentaron enviar unidades de refuerzo pero ya era demasiado tarde.

Barcelona se convierte en un caos y son muchos los que deciden abandonar la ciudad. Todos los puestos fronterizos de los Pirineos reciben largas filas de refugiados, civiles y combatientes, que huyen de la probable futura represión nacionalista. Más de 400.000 personas van a pasar en Francia.

El gobierno republicano tuvo que huir a Gerona ante el sitio de la ciudad de Barcelona. En la ciudad de Barcelona algunos comunistas trataron de resistir las ofencivas nacionales, mediante barricadas, pero pronto se comprobó que la situación era inevitable y que toda resistencia era inútil. El 26 de Enero las tropas de Franco toman Barcelona. Y el 5 de Febrero tomarán la ciudad de Gerona.

El 28 de Marzo cae la ciudad de Madrid sin resistencia alguna. En los días siguientes caerán las últimas capitales de provincia que mantenía en poder la fuerza republicana: el 29 de Marzo caen, Ciudad Real, Jaén Cuenca, Albacete y Almería. El 30 de Marzo Alicante y Valencia. Y las últimas ciudades en caer serían Murcia y Cartagena, el 31 de Marzo.

El 1 de abril de 1939, Franco publica un lacónico comunicado de victoria: "La guerra ha terminado". Es el fin de una guerra civil de tres años que costó a España cerca de 400.000 muertos y otros tantos exiliados. La guerra civil española, como tal, había concluido. Pero además, también se produce el fin de la "República democrática de los trabajadores de todas las clases", nacida en 1931.


 Day 2:

Teacher assigns heterogeneous groups (in terms of ability) of three, to compare their answers to the homework and create a brief timeline of the most important events and battles of the Civil War. 
Roles are assigned to each student; there is a recorder (records the ideas of the group), a time keeper (ensures the group stays on task), and a checker (responsible for ensuring the comprehension of each group member and ensures that each student contributes equally).  The information required for this timeline was outlined in the handout given for homework (titled Acontecimientos principales de la Guerra Civil Española). 
Discussion will be in the target language.  Students have 20 minutes to complete the tasks; teacher observes each group. 
Students will then watch a short clip (approximately 4 minutes) on youtube, in Spanish, which outlines the division of Spain and the events leading up to the civil war in more detail than the handout: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3C5ScyIU_6U.
Class discusses clip and reviews how the country was divided geographically and politically during this time in history.  The remainder of the period is devoted to student journal writing on reaction to class discussion and all that was learned today; teacher collects timelines. 


Day 3:

Class watches segment of film (lasting about 35 minutes), The Devil’s Backbone (El Espinazo del Diablo) directed by Guillermo del Toro, in target language, depicting the events of the Spanish Civil War.  Students are to answer the following questions in their reaction journals to maintain focus during the film:  Who is the boy in the film?  Where are his parents?  Describe what happens when he becomes involves in the politics of the war; etc.  A few higher order thinking/critical thinking questions will be given as well (How would you feel if you were the young boy in the film?    Do you think he exhibited courage throughout the course of the film?  Why or why not? Would you have done the same things had you been in his place?  What might you have done differently?  Explain your answer in the target language.  Have you ever experienced an event in your community that changed your perspective of life?  Explain your answer thoroughly).  If students do not finish these questions in class they will be expected to be completed for homework.  All answers must be given in target language.  I expect these questions to be thought-provoking and help students to process their reactions to the film.  As an additional homework assignment, students must create a diary entry (1-2 typed pages) in target language from the point of view of a nationalist or a republican during the civil war.

  Day 4:

Teacher collects previous night’s homework and collects reaction journals to determine how students are progressing.   Teacher presents Guernica, a painting by Pablo Picasso that represents the bombing of the Vasque Country during the civil war, to the class.  Students are asked to brainstorm ideas in pairs for ten minutes, in the target language, of what the painting could represent.  Class discussion follows, comparing and contrasting the images and ideas from the movie watched in class and that of the painting.  For homework, students are to create a Venn diagram, (which will later be stapled into their reaction journals after they have been returned by instructor) which will help them to identify similarities and differences between the Spanish Civil War and the US Civil War.



Day 5:

Class takes turns reading aloud from El cuarto de atrás by Carmen Martín Gaite (fiction book written about the Spanish Civil War and the dictatorship that follows).  Teacher pauses reading intermittently to ask higher order thinking questions in Spanish and calls on students to answer in Spanish.  Questions include: Who are the main characters in the work and what relationship do they have with each other?  Can you identify the narrative voice?  What is the gender, age, nationality, profession, and political affiliation of the narrator?  Can you clearly identify the past and the present?  Can you name some familiar events or historical facts that appear in the book that are related to real life or history in Spain?  According to the book, what is the situation of a female in Spain during the dictatorship?  How do you think you would cope with life during the dictatorship? 
 For homework, students are to read an article in Spanish titled Las manifestaciones de la violencia franquista, by Santiago Vega Sombria, discussing the manifestation of violence and repression during the Franco dictatorship and journal their responses in the target language. 
{The article is here: pages 489-514.  I cannot copy and paste the words because you must print it out (pdf file): hispanianova.rediris.es/7/dossier/07d002.pdf}

Day 6:

Teacher presents class with critical thinking questions written on a handout pertaining to the reading for previous night’s homework.
Cuestionario para el análisis de Las manifestaciones de la violencia franquista
 
1)      ¿Cuál forma tomó la represión franquista?  De ejemplos que encontró en el artículo de la represión política, la represión económica, la represión social, la represión psicológica, y la represión religiosa; y señala el fragmento y la página.  


2)      Según el autor, ¿por qué se empleó el uso de la violencia durante la dictadura franquista?


3)      ¿Cómo era la ideología del régimen franquista?


4)      ¿Cuáles fueron los términos empleados por los nacionalistas para describir a los simpatizantes y a los republicanos durante este período?   


These questions include: What forms did repression take during the dictatorship (psychological, religious, economic, political, social?, etc).  According to the article, why was violence employed?  What were some of the terms employed by the nationalists (supporters of Franco) with respect to the “sympathizers” and the republicans?   Students are to answer questions in groups, assigned by the teacher, (brainstorming together in the target language and everyone recording the answers separately) in the target language, drawing on the new vocabulary acquired through the reading.  Teacher observes, to ensure students are on task and answers questions/provides guidance/extra help to those that require it.  Teacher collects reaction journals for formative assessment. 

Day 7:

Teacher presents short lesson on the appropriate use of registers.  What this means is that at the end of the lesson, students will be able to use the correct form of the verb in the target language when addressing different individuals.  For example, with unfamiliar adults, students will use the formal form of the verbs and the formal form of “you.”  With peers, students will use the informal conjugations of verbs and the informal form of “you.”  Registers are, in effect, subsets of language used in particular social contexts.  For example, with our peers we may speak one way: “I ain’t gonna do nothing.”  And with unfamiliar adults, elders, or teachers we may speak another way: “I’m not going to do anything.”  In Spanish, registers affect not only our grammar but also our word choice.  For example, registers are often used to prescribe how we use the word “you.”  With strangers, our elders, or professionals like doctors and teachers, we will use the formal form of the word “you” in Spanish.  With our peers and our family we will use the informal form of the word “you.”  
For homework, students will write a business letter (length: at least four large paragraphs, in target language) to Francisco Franco with their thoughts on his political rule in Spain.  Students are to explain what they admire about his government and what they feel needs to be changed; students are expected to write in the target language, incorporate vocabulary acquired in class and through independent reading, and use appropriate registers. More specifically, students are to employ this formal way of saying “you” when writing to Franco because he is an elder, he is a stranger, and he would be categorized as a “professional.” 

 

 

Day 8: 

Teacher collects business letters addressed to Franco.  Class time is dedicated to working on final project.  Teacher explains assignment and expectations, and quickly reviews the rubric given the first day of the LE with which he or she will assess the students’ work.  Students will have time to begin their first drafts.  For homework, students are to complete their first draft of their final project.  (Described below)
 
The year is 1965.  You are a reporter for the Spanish magazine La Verdad and have been assigned to write an unbiased article about Francisco Franco’s dictatorship in Spain.  You must determine if Francisco Franco is a Solution or a Problem: use all the knowledge and information you have obtained throughout this unit to construct your answer.  In order to make this report more comprehensive, you must include background information on the Civil War that took place in the country before Franco’s reign; be sure your facts are historically accurate.  Pay close attention to spelling and grammar. 

Day 9:

Students review their peers' rough drafts and provide helpful feedback, suggestions, and encouragement in written form.  Students are to construct their peer reviews in the form of two cool and two warm comments; cool comments include constructive criticism and/or suggestions and warm comments provide student with encouragement and let him or her know what the reviewer especially liked about their work.  Teacher returns journals to students and conferences with all students, one-one-one, in order to answer any possible questions and to provide feedback on each student’s progress thus far. 
For homework, students are to produce a second draft of their essays. 



Day 10:

Class reads and discusses a poem written in support of Francisco Franco’s dictatorship written in the target language. Poem is “Elegía y recuerdo de la canción francesa, (1982)” and describes in a positive manner how life was during Franco’s reign.  This is a very different interpretation from much of the literature we have read thus far in the Learning Experience and will give students a variety of interpretations of many of the same facts.  Teacher will ask questions from a series of higher order thinking questions in the target language and to which students will rely on their critical thinking skills to produce answers in Spanish.   These questions will include:  

Teacher collects 2nd draft to evaluate students’ progress (formative assessment only).  For homework, students create review questions that have the common theme of the Spanish Civil War and Franco dictatorship unit.  Students must also generate (brief) answers to these questions.  The questions and answers generated by students (in the target language) will be used as a game of Jeopardy.   



Day 11:

Class plays game of Jeopardy for review (questions taken from all students ad combined to create a “master game”).  Teacher hands back feedback to all students’ drafts collected the day before.  Teacher collects reaction journals for final evaluation. For homework, students are to produce the final draft of their essays.  Before submitting the final draft, students are to evaluate their own work according to the same rubric to be used by the teacher (see resources section and rubric titled Trabajo Final).  Both the essay and the self-evaluation (rubric) will be submitted to the teacher.  The teacher will, therefore, obtain two copies of the same rubric for each student—one is completed as a self-assessment by the student and one is to be completed by the teacher as assessment of the student’s work. 

 

 
5) Resources
Teacher will provide each student with a composition notebook for the purpose of processing information through journaling their thoughts/reactions to learning experience.
Teacher will use school budget to purchase a classroom set of the book El cuarto de atrás, by Carmen Martín Gaite.  If the budget does not allow for this, the teacher will purchase the set out of pocket as many second-hand copies can be located on the internet at reasonable prices.
Teacher will photocopy all handouts/articles to be used during the learning experience.

Rubric to assess final project (found in the section titled Assessment Plan—see rubric titled Trabajo Final).   Other rubrics to assess the business letter and the reaction journal (also found in the section titled Assessment Plan). 
Anticipation/reaction guide (found in section titled Procedure). 
Martín Gaite, Carmen. El cuarto de atrás. Madrid: Destino, 1996. Print.
Book based on author’s life and experiences with Francisco Franco’s dictatorship in Spain; describes the dictatorship in a negative manner.
Vega Sombria, Santiago. Las manifestaciones de la violencia franquista. Hispanionovia. Revista de Historia Contemporánea 7 (2007): 489-514. Web. 5 November 2009. <hispanianova.rediris.es/7/dossier/07d002.pdf >
Scholarly article that details the many forms of violence and repression employed by the Franco regimen in Spain.
The Devil’s Backbone (El Espinazo del Diablo), Guillermo del Toro. Sony Pictures, 2001. Film.
Film produced by Pedro Almodóvar, a famous Spanish filmmaker.  Film is set in Spain in the year 1939, and tells the story of a young orphan who becomes politically involved in the Civil War. 
Copy of Pablo Picasso’s 1937 painting Guernica
A powerful painting by Pablo Picasso that represents the bombing of the Vasque Country during the civil war.

Gil de Biedma, Jaime. Elegía y recuerdo de la canción francesa. Moralidades: Las personas del verbo. Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1982. Print.
Poem in Spanish that describes Francisco Franco’s dictatorship in a positive manner.

 “La guerra civil española.” Youtube. 25 April 2008. Web. 11 November 2009. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3C5ScyIU_6U>
Clip in Spanish from youtube which describes the events of the Spanish Civil War and details how the country was divided both politically and geographically during these years.


La guerra civil española: acontecimientos principales de la guerra.” Infoguerracivil.com. 13 July 2004. Web. 11 November 2009. <http://www.infoguerracivil.com/espana-ano-1937.html>
Article in Spanish that details the main events of the Spanish Civil War. 


6) Instructional/Environmental Modifications
The Learning Experience will incorporate a variety of activities to accommodate all learning styles and the multiple intelligences.  For example, the film will accommodate the visual (nonverbal) learners, whereas the auditory/verbal learners will benefit greatly from the class and group discussions and brainstorming activities.
The activities and assessment for this unit will not prevent physically challenged students from participating in the learning experience. 
Changes would be made for academically challenged students or students with special needs in this learning experience, to be determined on a case by case basis.  For example, if a student was not able to write an essay of several pages, an exception would be made for that student with respect to the length of his or her essay—perhaps he or she would be required to write only 1.5 pages instead of the three to six normally expected to meet the Standard.
If the student had difficulty with producing any form of written work in the target language, he or she could meet with the teacher, one-on-one, to present their ideas orally in the target language to demonstrate his or her understanding of content.  Another alternative would be to demonstrate his or her understanding with non-linguistic representations (for example, create a drawing of Spain during the war or a physical model of the country during the war). 
 
7) Time Required
Planning would require a minimum of one month on the teacher’s behalf to obtain necessary materials, create assessment rubrics, etc. 
With respect to implementation, the length of each class period counted as 40 minutes, the Learning Experience would require 11 class periods. 
Assessment would not require class time, however, it would require time spent by the teacher outside of class assessing journals, business letters, timelines, essays, etc.  This would require approximately one week outside of class.



 

 

8) Reflection

I chose to implement constructivist activities that would stimulate interest and excitement in learning.  I think students will enjoy the materials used in this learning experience!  Furthermore, they are all authentic—that is to say that they were designed for native speakers.  This makes for a more challenging Learning Experience and ensures that the learners will take away a sense of pride from tackling such tasks as reading, watching, listening to, and writing about/discussing these authentic materials.
 
Here are some questions for further reflection:
How effective was the learning experience? 
Did the students enjoy it? 
Did they retain the information (over the course of a few weeks, over the course of the semester)? 
Have the students implemented the new information correctly in conversation or written assignments?
Were the activities/homework assignments/assessments too demanding or challenging?
Were the activities/homework assignments/assessments too easy?
Was the time-allotment satisfactory?
Were there enough materials/too many materials used? 
Were the materials appropriate in terms of content, length, and age of students?



 



 

 

 

 

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Kristine Akey
akey4081@mail.plattsburgh.edu
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Last updated: January 2010
© 2010 Kristine Akey